Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on Participatory governance of cultural heritage

This report has been elaborated to support the OMC (Open Method of Coordination) working group under the same name (Work Plan for Culture 2015-2018). The document analyses a variety of examples reflecting several nuances of participation of citizens and communities in the cultural heritage sector and presents some final considerations based on these case studies as well as on a literature review.

The aim of the report is to provide a solid basis for discussion and reflection for the OMC working group above mentioned and also to identify and present the challenges and future possibilities with regard to public policies on engaging communities, local population, cultural institutions and stakeholders in valuing and managing cultural heritage on one hand, and with regard to the development of multilevel and multi-stakeholder governance frameworks for the management of cultural heritage resources on the other.

This document has been prepared by Margherita Sani, Bernadette Lynch, Jasper Visser and Alessandra Gariboldi on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture – EENC.

Artists’ mobility and Administrative Practices related to Social Security and Taxation in the European Union (EU)

In September 2013, following a request of the European Commission (Directorate-General Education and Culture), the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) commissioned the cultural mobility information network, On the Move, to undertake an analytical report on the issue of intra-EU artists’ mobility and related administrative practices with regard to social security and taxation.

The report has been prepared as background material to the thematic seminar on artists’ mobility & social security/taxation organised by the European Commission (19 & 20 June 2014, Brussels) under the Council Work Plan for Culture, Priority Area C “Skills & Mobility” (2011-2014) with the aim to facilitate exchange of information and of good practices as regards artists’ mobility. Indeed, the objectives to attain, in terms of policy measures, would be to possibly minimize those obstacles which artists face in terms of their mobility and which have serious consequences for the development of their professional career but also to foster larger EU policy objectives, including the promotion of cultural diversity.

The report maps the obstacles, in the fields of social security and taxation, which artists and cultural professionals face when they are mobile or seek to be mobile in the EU. It also introduces a typology of identified obstacles, includes an analysis of the impact of recent legislative and regulatory developments and presents a set of good administrative practices.

The report was prepared by M. Demartin, M. Le Sourd and E. Di Federico (On The Move), with the collaboration of A. Debaere and T. Perez (PEARLE*).

Trends in Public Funding for Culture in the EU

In April 2013 the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission asked the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) to produce a short report examining the main trends of public funding for culture in EU Member States.

The research focused on public budgets for the cultural and creative sectors as provided by governmental departments in charge of cultural affairs or other public bodies to which responsibilities for cultural policy have been allocated, as well as on other forms of data classification which make cultural purposes explicit, insofar as this data was available.

The initial aim was to collect data for 2012 and 2013 as well as initial forecasts for 2014. However, the lack of available data in many countries and years, alongside with the wish to present figures in a longer-term framework to facilitate the interpretation of trends, has led the research team to collect data also for previous years through both the Eurostat and OECD databases which, moreover, present it in a uniform, comparable format.

The examination of the statistics of public expenditure of the last years reveals different, sometimes even opposite, patterns between cultural and total spending as well as between central and local budgets, respectively. With regard to the individual countries, the analysis reveals no overall “European trend” in how the new financial environment has affected public cultural funding. In most cases trends follow the curves of general public budgets in each country: when and where government budgets suffer major reductions cultural expenditure also falls to a large degree. This correlation between general and cultural budgets is, however, not automatic. In most countries the crisis had an immediate impact on the budgets of central governments, reaching local (regional and municipal) finances in later waves.

The report was written by V. Čopič, P. Inkei, A. Kangas and A. Srakar on behalf of the EENC. Research and editing support was provided by Interarts.

Study on the Valuation of Works of Art for Lending and Borrowing Purposes

The EU Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014 includes an aim to foster the mobility of collections (cultural heritage, works of art, etc.) through the simplification of processes of lending and borrowing. Among the tasks foreseen are the setting-up of a working group of Member State representatives and the commissioning of a study on systems for the valuation of works of art – the latter is presented hereby.

This study, carried out between 2011 and 2012, aims to assist the European Commission and EU Member States by providing updated knowledge on the methods for the valuation of works of art in Europe and considering measures to facilitate the mobility of collections, through a survey of museums, governments and curators. The focus of the research lies on the financial valuation of works of art and how valuation processes are undertaken in the practice of EU Member States.

The report includes a short description of how financial valuation occurs in the broader context of the valuation of cultural goods or works of art, describes the results of questionnaires and interviews with museums, governments and curators and presents recommendations at policy and management level. A sample methodology for assessing the value of different types of collections and a glossary of key terms are also included.

The study was written by Cornelia Dümcke and Freda Matassa on behalf of the EENC.

On the other hand, documents produced by the EU Working Group on the Mobility of Collections, including a report and a toolkit on practical ways to reduce the cost of lending and borrowing of cultural objects, are available on the European Commission’s website.