Artists’ mobility and Administrative Practices related to Social Security and Taxation in the European Union (EU)

In September 2013, following a request of the European Commission (Directorate-General Education and Culture), the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) commissioned the cultural mobility information network, On the Move, to undertake an analytical report on the issue of intra-EU artists’ mobility and related administrative practices with regard to social security and taxation.

The report has been prepared as background material to the thematic seminar on artists’ mobility & social security/taxation organised by the European Commission (19 & 20 June 2014, Brussels) under the Council Work Plan for Culture, Priority Area C “Skills & Mobility” (2011-2014) with the aim to facilitate exchange of information and of good practices as regards artists’ mobility. Indeed, the objectives to attain, in terms of policy measures, would be to possibly minimize those obstacles which artists face in terms of their mobility and which have serious consequences for the development of their professional career but also to foster larger EU policy objectives, including the promotion of cultural diversity.

The report maps the obstacles, in the fields of social security and taxation, which artists and cultural professionals face when they are mobile or seek to be mobile in the EU. It also introduces a typology of identified obstacles, includes an analysis of the impact of recent legislative and regulatory developments and presents a set of good administrative practices.

The report was prepared by M. Demartin, M. Le Sourd and E. Di Federico (On The Move), with the collaboration of A. Debaere and T. Perez (PEARLE*).

Trends in Public Funding for Culture in the EU

In April 2013 the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission asked the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) to produce a short report examining the main trends of public funding for culture in EU Member States.

The research focused on public budgets for the cultural and creative sectors as provided by governmental departments in charge of cultural affairs or other public bodies to which responsibilities for cultural policy have been allocated, as well as on other forms of data classification which make cultural purposes explicit, insofar as this data was available.

The initial aim was to collect data for 2012 and 2013 as well as initial forecasts for 2014. However, the lack of available data in many countries and years, alongside with the wish to present figures in a longer-term framework to facilitate the interpretation of trends, has led the research team to collect data also for previous years through both the Eurostat and OECD databases which, moreover, present it in a uniform, comparable format.

The examination of the statistics of public expenditure of the last years reveals different, sometimes even opposite, patterns between cultural and total spending as well as between central and local budgets, respectively. With regard to the individual countries, the analysis reveals no overall “European trend” in how the new financial environment has affected public cultural funding. In most cases trends follow the curves of general public budgets in each country: when and where government budgets suffer major reductions cultural expenditure also falls to a large degree. This correlation between general and cultural budgets is, however, not automatic. In most countries the crisis had an immediate impact on the budgets of central governments, reaching local (regional and municipal) finances in later waves.

The report was written by V. Čopič, P. Inkei, A. Kangas and A. Srakar on behalf of the EENC. Research and editing support was provided by Interarts.

Report on Export and Internationalisation Strategies for the Cultural and Creative Industries

In July 2012, the European Commission’s Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) asked the EENC to produce a commented mapping of strategies and bodies existing in EU Member States to support the export and internationalisation of goods and services in the cultural and creative industries (CCIs), as well as contextual data on trends and export volumes and a final analysis of the evidence presented.

The request arose in the context of the setting-up of a Working Group involving representatives of EU Member States, within the framework of the Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014. The report was then presented and discussed at the first two meetings of the working group, held in Brussels in December 2012 and February 2013.

The resulting document lists approximately 100 publications, policy documents and evaluation reports from the past five years, as well as around 230 bodies involved in the export and internationalisation strategies of CCIs, covering all EU Member States. It also identifies three key action areas where cooperation among European governments and agencies could be furthered, each including specific recommendations: identifying and disseminating good practice; building the knowledge and evidence base for CCI exports; and fostering joined-up policy and investment for CCI export development.

The report was carried out by EENC members Judith Staines and Colin Mercer.