The resilience of employment in the Culture and Creative Sectors (CCSs) during the crisis

In April 2013 the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission requested the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) a study on “The resilience of employment in the Culture and Creative Sectors (CCSs) during the crisis, the percentage of youth employment in the CCCs, and the projections of employment and growth of the CCCs notably in the digital environment”.

The study collects and analyses the available public data on culture, creativity and the new technologies from the 28 European Member States, with the aim to present statistical and policy evidence supporting the assumption that employment in the culture and creative sectors (CCSs) has proven to provide for a certain degree of resilience during the years of the financial crisis in Europe.

Indeed, the review and analysis of the best available statistical evidence regarding employment in the various local labour markets in Europe, has enabled to show that the cultural and creative sectors (CCSs) have provided for a certain degree of resilience during the years of the economic crisis in Europe.

Still, in a period when public and private budgets decrease it is important that public policies aim at fostering both cultural participation and consumption of cultural goods and services in order to boost the development of the ultural and creative sectors through direct market revenue. Also due consideration should be given to the importance that regulating labour markets can impact strongly on the development of the CCSs.

This document has been prepared by Giulio Stumpo, and revised by Robert Manchin on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC). Research support and consultation has been provided by Elena Alessandrini, Cristina Da Milano, Mercedes Giovinazzo, Flaminia Piedimonte and Federica Torsello.

Opportunities for CCSs to Access Finance in the EU – Short Analytical Report

The short analytical report focusing on the financial environment for the Cultural and Creative Sectors (CCSs) in EU Member States has been requested to the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) by the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC). The request also involved providing a mapping of funding mechanisms and of regulatory incentives for the CCSs across the EU as well as identifying examples of innovative and most effective practices.

This report is set against the following framework. First, the European Commission, under the framework of ‘Creative Europe’, its new framework program for 2014-2020, wishes to contribute in concrete ways to the promotion of competitiveness of the CCSs in Europe. Second, there is an increasing engagement of the European Commission in the promotion of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), also as regards the CCSs. Finally, there is a growing interest of both EU Member States and regional and local authorities in identifying solutions to the “access to finance” issue which is known as one of the biggest challenges for micro and small entrepreneurs in the CCSs throughout Europe.

In the last years several research reports have been published on the issue of accessing finance by the CCSs. Still, a study which attempts summarizing and updating relevant information on existing financing schemes for the CCSs in EU Member States was lacking. The present study also presents hands-on information for professionals in the sector on such funding instruments and examples of innovative practices, including financial schemes or relevant public regulatory incentives. It also includes a set of practices that can be considered as efficient and which are widely used to support the CCSs, including subsidies which have a long-term sustainability effect.

The report was carried out by Cornelia Dümcke, Zora Jaurová and Péter Inkei on behalf of the EENC.