Policy Handbook on Artists’ Residencies

This report is the outcome of the OMC Working Group on Artists’ Residencies, a group of national experts from the EU Member States, launched in April 2013 under Priority Area C ‘Skills and Mobility’ of the Council Work Plan for Culture 2011-20141, which implements the European Agenda for Culture.

The Open Method of Coordination (OMC) is a voluntary form of cooperation between EU Member States, which aims to improve policymaking and structured cooperation through peer-learning and the exchange of best practice. The method was extended to the field of culture in 2008 on the recommendation of the European Commission in the European Agenda for Culture (2007).

The OMC Working Group’s mandate was to identify the success factors in preparing, carrying out and following-up artists’ residencies, with a specific focus on building capacity and with the goal of reducing imbalances in incoming/outgoing residencies. The good practice identified should help to build capacity, both inside the EU and when developing residencies in third countries, as well as to facilitate networking at EU level.

The aim of the Policy Handbook is to provide an analysis of the value of artists’ residencies and to identify examples of good practice. It also looks at recent trends, benefits and success factors to inform policymakers and practitioners of the best way to support and develop residency programmes in the 21st century.

Artists’ mobility and Administrative Practices related to Social Security and Taxation in the European Union (EU)

In September 2013, following a request of the European Commission (Directorate-General Education and Culture), the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) commissioned the cultural mobility information network, On the Move, to undertake an analytical report on the issue of intra-EU artists’ mobility and related administrative practices with regard to social security and taxation.

The report has been prepared as background material to the thematic seminar on artists’ mobility & social security/taxation organised by the European Commission (19 & 20 June 2014, Brussels) under the Council Work Plan for Culture, Priority Area C “Skills & Mobility” (2011-2014) with the aim to facilitate exchange of information and of good practices as regards artists’ mobility. Indeed, the objectives to attain, in terms of policy measures, would be to possibly minimize those obstacles which artists face in terms of their mobility and which have serious consequences for the development of their professional career but also to foster larger EU policy objectives, including the promotion of cultural diversity.

The report maps the obstacles, in the fields of social security and taxation, which artists and cultural professionals face when they are mobile or seek to be mobile in the EU. It also introduces a typology of identified obstacles, includes an analysis of the impact of recent legislative and regulatory developments and presents a set of good administrative practices.

The report was prepared by M. Demartin, M. Le Sourd and E. Di Federico (On The Move), with the collaboration of A. Debaere and T. Perez (PEARLE*).

Trends in Public Funding for Culture in the EU

In April 2013 the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission asked the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) to produce a short report examining the main trends of public funding for culture in EU Member States.

The research focused on public budgets for the cultural and creative sectors as provided by governmental departments in charge of cultural affairs or other public bodies to which responsibilities for cultural policy have been allocated, as well as on other forms of data classification which make cultural purposes explicit, insofar as this data was available.

The initial aim was to collect data for 2012 and 2013 as well as initial forecasts for 2014. However, the lack of available data in many countries and years, alongside with the wish to present figures in a longer-term framework to facilitate the interpretation of trends, has led the research team to collect data also for previous years through both the Eurostat and OECD databases which, moreover, present it in a uniform, comparable format.

The examination of the statistics of public expenditure of the last years reveals different, sometimes even opposite, patterns between cultural and total spending as well as between central and local budgets, respectively. With regard to the individual countries, the analysis reveals no overall “European trend” in how the new financial environment has affected public cultural funding. In most cases trends follow the curves of general public budgets in each country: when and where government budgets suffer major reductions cultural expenditure also falls to a large degree. This correlation between general and cultural budgets is, however, not automatic. In most countries the crisis had an immediate impact on the budgets of central governments, reaching local (regional and municipal) finances in later waves.

The report was written by V. Čopič, P. Inkei, A. Kangas and A. Srakar on behalf of the EENC. Research and editing support was provided by Interarts.