Opportunities for CCSs to Access Finance in the EU – Short Analytical Report

The short analytical report focusing on the financial environment for the Cultural and Creative Sectors (CCSs) in EU Member States has been requested to the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) by the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC). The request also involved providing a mapping of funding mechanisms and of regulatory incentives for the CCSs across the EU as well as identifying examples of innovative and most effective practices.

This report is set against the following framework. First, the European Commission, under the framework of ‘Creative Europe’, its new framework program for 2014-2020, wishes to contribute in concrete ways to the promotion of competitiveness of the CCSs in Europe. Second, there is an increasing engagement of the European Commission in the promotion of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), also as regards the CCSs. Finally, there is a growing interest of both EU Member States and regional and local authorities in identifying solutions to the “access to finance” issue which is known as one of the biggest challenges for micro and small entrepreneurs in the CCSs throughout Europe.

In the last years several research reports have been published on the issue of accessing finance by the CCSs. Still, a study which attempts summarizing and updating relevant information on existing financing schemes for the CCSs in EU Member States was lacking. The present study also presents hands-on information for professionals in the sector on such funding instruments and examples of innovative practices, including financial schemes or relevant public regulatory incentives. It also includes a set of practices that can be considered as efficient and which are widely used to support the CCSs, including subsidies which have a long-term sustainability effect.

The report was carried out by Cornelia Dümcke, Zora Jaurová and Péter Inkei on behalf of the EENC.

Download the report here.

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Trends in Public Funding for Culture in the EU

In April 2013 the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission asked the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) to produce a short report examining the main trends of public funding for culture in EU Member States.

The research focused on public budgets for the cultural and creative sectors as provided by governmental departments in charge of cultural affairs or other public bodies to which responsibilities for cultural policy have been allocated, as well as on other forms of data classification which make cultural purposes explicit, insofar as this data was available.

The initial aim was to collect data for 2012 and 2013 as well as initial forecasts for 2014. However, the lack of available data in many countries and years, alongside with the wish to present figures in a longer-term framework to facilitate the interpretation of trends, has led the research team to collect data also for previous years through both the Eurostat and OECD databases which, moreover, present it in a uniform, comparable format.

The examination of the statistics of public expenditure of the last years reveals different, sometimes even opposite, patterns between cultural and total spending as well as between central and local budgets, respectively. With regard to the individual countries, the analysis reveals no overall “European trend” in how the new financial environment has affected public cultural funding. In most cases trends follow the curves of general public budgets in each country: when and where government budgets suffer major reductions cultural expenditure also falls to a large degree. This correlation between general and cultural budgets is, however, not automatic. In most countries the crisis had an immediate impact on the budgets of central governments, reaching local (regional and municipal) finances in later waves.

The report was written by V. Čopič, P. Inkei, A. Kangas and A. Srakar on behalf of the EENC. Research and editing support was provided by Interarts.

Download the report here.

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Artists’ mobility and Administrative Practices related to Social Security and Taxation in the European Union (EU)

In September 2013, following a request of the European Commission (Directorate-General Education and Culture), the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) commissioned the cultural mobility information network, On the Move, to undertake an analytical report on the issue of intra-EU artists’ mobility and related administrative practices with regard to social security and taxation.

The report has been prepared as background material to the thematic seminar on artists’ mobility & social security/taxation organised by the European Commission (19 & 20 June 2014, Brussels) under the Council Work Plan for Culture, Priority Area C “Skills & Mobility” (2011-2014) with the aim to facilitate exchange of information and of good practices as regards artists’ mobility. Indeed, the objectives to attain, in terms of policy measures, would be to possibly minimize those obstacles which artists face in terms of their mobility and which have serious consequences for the development of their professional career but also to foster larger EU policy objectives, including the promotion of cultural diversity.

The report maps the obstacles, in the fields of social security and taxation, which artists and cultural professionals face when they are mobile or seek to be mobile in the EU. It also introduces a typology of identified obstacles, includes an analysis of the impact of recent legislative and regulatory developments and presents a set of good administrative practices.

The report was prepared by M. Demartin, M. Le Sourd and E. Di Federico (On The Move), with the collaboration of A. Debaere and T. Perez (PEARLE*).

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EU-South Korea: Current Trends of Cultural Exchange and Future Perspectives

In 2012, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) asked the EENC to map existing trends in cultural exchange between the EU and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and their economic dimension. The request arose in the context of the implementation of the Protocol on Cultural Cooperation, which entered into force in 2011 as part of the EU-Korea Free Trade Agreement.

The resulting document presents a mapping of the current reality of cultural exchange between the EU and South Korea in several specific fields, including publishing, performing arts, cultural heritage, the mobility of artists and culture professionals, cultural industries and audiovisual (with a particular focus on co-production), as well as the policies and cooperation frameworks existing in these fields. The report was completed in late 2012 but some tables were updated in September 2013, at the request of DG EAC.

The report was prepared by Marie Le Sourd, Elena Di Federico (both members of staff of On The Move) and Dr Sung-Won Yoon (University of Suwon, South Korea).

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Study on the Valuation of Works of Art for Lending and Borrowing Purposes

The EU Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014 includes an aim to foster the mobility of collections (cultural heritage, works of art, etc.) through the simplification of processes of lending and borrowing. Among the tasks foreseen are the setting-up of a working group of Member State representatives and the commissioning of a study on systems for the valuation of works of art – the latter is presented hereby.

This study, carried out between 2011 and 2012, aims to assist the European Commission and EU Member States by providing updated knowledge on the methods for the valuation of works of art in Europe and considering measures to facilitate the mobility of collections, through a survey of museums, governments and curators. The focus of the research lies on the financial valuation of works of art and how valuation processes are undertaken in the practice of EU Member States.

The report includes a short description of how financial valuation occurs in the broader context of the valuation of cultural goods or works of art, describes the results of questionnaires and interviews with museums, governments and curators and presents recommendations at policy and management level. A sample methodology for assessing the value of different types of collections and a glossary of key terms are also included.

The study was written by Cornelia Dümcke and Freda Matassa on behalf of the EENC.

On the other hand, documents produced by the EU Working Group on the Mobility of Collections, including a report and a toolkit on practical ways to reduce the cost of lending and borrowing of cultural objects, are available on the European Commission’s website.

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Report on Export and Internationalisation Strategies for the Cultural and Creative Industries

In July 2012, the European Commission’s Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) asked the EENC to produce a commented mapping of strategies and bodies existing in EU Member States to support the export and internationalisation of goods and services in the cultural and creative industries (CCIs), as well as contextual data on trends and export volumes and a final analysis of the evidence presented.

The request arose in the context of the setting-up of a Working Group involving representatives of EU Member States, within the framework of the Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014. The report was then presented and discussed at the first two meetings of the working group, held in Brussels in December 2012 and February 2013.

The resulting document lists approximately 100 publications, policy documents and evaluation reports from the past five years, as well as around 230 bodies involved in the export and internationalisation strategies of CCIs, covering all EU Member States. It also identifies three key action areas where cooperation among European governments and agencies could be furthered, each including specific recommendations: identifying and disseminating good practice; building the knowledge and evidence base for CCI exports; and fostering joined-up policy and investment for CCI export development.

The report was carried out by EENC members Judith Staines and Colin Mercer.

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Reports and studies prepared by the EENC are presented on this page.

Mapping of Studies on EU-China Cultural Relations

In January 2012, the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC) submitted a request for a mapping of existing studies regarding EU-China cultural relations.

The request arose in the context of the 2012 EU-China Year of Intercultural Dialogue. Likewise, in the framework of the EU Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014, an expert group on culture and external relations was due to examine cultural relations with China in the course of 2012.

The mapping study found a high number of relevant documents (reports, studies, articles and radio programmes) and compiled a selection of these, totalling over 100 publications, mostly available online. Themes addressed in the report include cultural diplomacy and China’s soft power strategies, Chinese views of culture and international cultural cooperation, cross-perceptions, points of friction in EU-China cultural relations, bilateral cultural relations, cultural cooperation project examples and evaluation of cultural relations.

The report was prepared by Judith Staines on behalf of the EENC. A peer-review was carried out by Katelijn Verstraete.

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Report on Crowdfunding Schemes in Europe and their Legal Implications

In July 2011, the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC) asked the EENC to prepare a report on crowdfunding schemes in Europe, with a particular focus on the legal issues in this field.

The request related to the European Commission’s European Agenda for Culture in a Globalizing World, and particularly its aim to help develop innovative sources of funding in the creative sector. The immediate objective of the research was to enable internal discussions within DG EAC as regards the political and regulatory implications of crowdfunding at both EU and Member State level.

The resulting analytical report presents a synthesis on the practices of crowdfunding schemes in the cultural and creative sector in Europe, an analysis of issues which potentially affect EU competences and/or regulatory frameworks and a set of recommendations in the field of EU and national regulation. In addition to public authorities, the report can be relevant to anyone active in the cultural field and with an interest in new forms of funding and participation.

The report was written by David Röthler and Karsten Wenzlaff and a peer-review was conducted by Aleksandra Uzelac. It was submitted to DG EAC in September 2011.

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Report: Audience-building and the future ‘Creative Europe’ Programme

In the context of the preparations for the future Creative Europe Programme, which is due to replace the European Commission’s current Culture Programme (2007-2013) in the next EU financial period (2014-20), the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) was asked to prepare a report exploring the role of audience building.

This document aims to present relevant trends and examples in different cultural sectors, provide recommendations to European institutions on how to foster audience building on a European level, and identify gaps in existing information. The study has involved the analysis of 28 case studies from 12 different member states, representing a diverse sample of approaches, organisations, degree of formalisation, geographic locations and target publics, among others.

The report was prepared between October 2011 and January 2012 by Anne Bamford and Michael Wimmer, with research support provided by Péter Inkei, János Zoltán Szabó, Nina Vestby and Jordi Baltà.

Download the report here.

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