Reports

Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on Participatory governance of cultural heritage

This report has been elaborated to support the OMC (Open Method of Coordination) working group under the same name (Work Plan for Culture 2015-2018). The document analyses a variety of examples reflecting several nuances of participation of citizens and communities in the cultural heritage sector and presents some final considerations based on these case studies as well as on a literature review.

The aim of the report is to provide a solid basis for discussion and reflection for the OMC working group above mentioned and also to identify and present the challenges and future possibilities with regard to public policies on engaging communities, local population, cultural institutions and stakeholders in valuing and managing cultural heritage on one hand, and with regard to the development of multilevel and multi-stakeholder governance frameworks for the management of cultural heritage resources on the other.

This document has been prepared by Margherita Sani, Bernadette Lynch, Jasper Visser and Alessandra Gariboldi on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture – EENC.

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Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on promoting access to culture via digital means

The present EENC “Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on promoting access to culture via digital means” aims to analyse the challenges and future possibilities for European cultural organisations in the current environment of fast technological change, global competition, and tight budgets. It also identifies examples of practices that appear to be the most efficient or mostly used to support audience development via digital means, in a broad spectrum of sectors.

This document has been prepared by Ms. Cristina Da Milano and Mr. Niels Righolt on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture – EENC.

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Policy Handbook on Artists’ Residencies

This report is the outcome of the OMC Working Group on Artists’ Residencies, a group of national experts from the EU Member States, launched in April 2013 under Priority Area C ‘Skills and Mobility’ of the Council Work Plan for Culture 2011-20141, which implements the European Agenda for Culture.

The Open Method of Coordination (OMC) is a voluntary form of cooperation between EU Member States, which aims to improve policymaking and structured cooperation through peer-learning and the exchange of best practice. The method was extended to the field of culture in 2008 on the recommendation of the European Commission in the European Agenda for Culture (2007).

The OMC Working Group’s mandate was to identify the success factors in preparing, carrying out and following-up artists’ residencies, with a specific focus on building capacity and with the goal of reducing imbalances in incoming/outgoing residencies. The good practice identified should help to build capacity, both inside the EU and when developing residencies in third countries, as well as to facilitate networking at EU level.

The aim of the Policy Handbook is to provide an analysis of the value of artists’ residencies and to identify examples of good practice. It also looks at recent trends, benefits and success factors to inform policymakers and practitioners of the best way to support and develop residency programmes in the 21st century.

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The resilience of employment in the Culture and Creative Sectors (CCSs) during the crisis

In April 2013 the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission requested the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) a study on “The resilience of employment in the Culture and Creative Sectors (CCSs) during the crisis, the percentage of youth employment in the CCCs, and the projections of employment and growth of the CCCs notably in the digital environment”.

The study collects and analyses the available public data on culture, creativity and the new technologies from the 28 European Member States, with the aim to present statistical and policy evidence supporting the assumption that employment in the culture and creative sectors (CCSs) has proven to provide for a certain degree of resilience during the years of the financial crisis in Europe.

Indeed, the review and analysis of the best available statistical evidence regarding employment in the various local labour markets in Europe, has enabled to show that the cultural and creative sectors (CCSs) have provided for a certain degree of resilience during the years of the economic crisis in Europe.

Still, in a period when public and private budgets decrease it is important that public policies aim at fostering both cultural participation and consumption of cultural goods and services in order to boost the development of the ultural and creative sectors through direct market revenue. Also due consideration should be given to the importance that regulating labour markets can impact strongly on the development of the CCSs.

This document has been prepared by Giulio Stumpo, and revised by Robert Manchin on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC). Research support and consultation has been provided by Elena Alessandrini, Cristina Da Milano, Mercedes Giovinazzo, Flaminia Piedimonte and Federica Torsello.

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Opportunities for CCSs to Access Finance in the EU – Short Analytical Report

The short analytical report focusing on the financial environment for the Cultural and Creative Sectors (CCSs) in EU Member States has been requested to the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) by the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC). The request also involved providing a mapping of funding mechanisms and of regulatory incentives for the CCSs across the EU as well as identifying examples of innovative and most effective practices.

This report is set against the following framework. First, the European Commission, under the framework of ‘Creative Europe’, its new framework program for 2014-2020, wishes to contribute in concrete ways to the promotion of competitiveness of the CCSs in Europe. Second, there is an increasing engagement of the European Commission in the promotion of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), also as regards the CCSs. Finally, there is a growing interest of both EU Member States and regional and local authorities in identifying solutions to the “access to finance” issue which is known as one of the biggest challenges for micro and small entrepreneurs in the CCSs throughout Europe.

In the last years several research reports have been published on the issue of accessing finance by the CCSs. Still, a study which attempts summarizing and updating relevant information on existing financing schemes for the CCSs in EU Member States was lacking. The present study also presents hands-on information for professionals in the sector on such funding instruments and examples of innovative practices, including financial schemes or relevant public regulatory incentives. It also includes a set of practices that can be considered as efficient and which are widely used to support the CCSs, including subsidies which have a long-term sustainability effect.

The report was carried out by Cornelia Dümcke, Zora Jaurová and Péter Inkei on behalf of the EENC.

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Trends in Public Funding for Culture in the EU

In April 2013 the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission asked the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) to produce a short report examining the main trends of public funding for culture in EU Member States.

The research focused on public budgets for the cultural and creative sectors as provided by governmental departments in charge of cultural affairs or other public bodies to which responsibilities for cultural policy have been allocated, as well as on other forms of data classification which make cultural purposes explicit, insofar as this data was available.

The initial aim was to collect data for 2012 and 2013 as well as initial forecasts for 2014. However, the lack of available data in many countries and years, alongside with the wish to present figures in a longer-term framework to facilitate the interpretation of trends, has led the research team to collect data also for previous years through both the Eurostat and OECD databases which, moreover, present it in a uniform, comparable format.

The examination of the statistics of public expenditure of the last years reveals different, sometimes even opposite, patterns between cultural and total spending as well as between central and local budgets, respectively. With regard to the individual countries, the analysis reveals no overall “European trend” in how the new financial environment has affected public cultural funding. In most cases trends follow the curves of general public budgets in each country: when and where government budgets suffer major reductions cultural expenditure also falls to a large degree. This correlation between general and cultural budgets is, however, not automatic. In most countries the crisis had an immediate impact on the budgets of central governments, reaching local (regional and municipal) finances in later waves.

The report was written by V. Čopič, P. Inkei, A. Kangas and A. Srakar on behalf of the EENC. Research and editing support was provided by Interarts.

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Artists’ mobility and Administrative Practices related to Social Security and Taxation in the European Union (EU)

In September 2013, following a request of the European Commission (Directorate-General Education and Culture), the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) commissioned the cultural mobility information network, On the Move, to undertake an analytical report on the issue of intra-EU artists’ mobility and related administrative practices with regard to social security and taxation.

The report has been prepared as background material to the thematic seminar on artists’ mobility & social security/taxation organised by the European Commission (19 & 20 June 2014, Brussels) under the Council Work Plan for Culture, Priority Area C “Skills & Mobility” (2011-2014) with the aim to facilitate exchange of information and of good practices as regards artists’ mobility. Indeed, the objectives to attain, in terms of policy measures, would be to possibly minimize those obstacles which artists face in terms of their mobility and which have serious consequences for the development of their professional career but also to foster larger EU policy objectives, including the promotion of cultural diversity.

The report maps the obstacles, in the fields of social security and taxation, which artists and cultural professionals face when they are mobile or seek to be mobile in the EU. It also introduces a typology of identified obstacles, includes an analysis of the impact of recent legislative and regulatory developments and presents a set of good administrative practices.

The report was prepared by M. Demartin, M. Le Sourd and E. Di Federico (On The Move), with the collaboration of A. Debaere and T. Perez (PEARLE*).

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EU-South Korea: Current Trends of Cultural Exchange and Future Perspectives

In 2012, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) asked the EENC to map existing trends in cultural exchange between the EU and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and their economic dimension. The request arose in the context of the implementation of the Protocol on Cultural Cooperation, which entered into force in 2011 as part of the EU-Korea Free Trade Agreement.

The resulting document presents a mapping of the current reality of cultural exchange between the EU and South Korea in several specific fields, including publishing, performing arts, cultural heritage, the mobility of artists and culture professionals, cultural industries and audiovisual (with a particular focus on co-production), as well as the policies and cooperation frameworks existing in these fields. The report was completed in late 2012 but some tables were updated in September 2013, at the request of DG EAC.

The report was prepared by Marie Le Sourd, Elena Di Federico (both members of staff of On The Move) and Dr Sung-Won Yoon (University of Suwon, South Korea).

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Study on the Valuation of Works of Art for Lending and Borrowing Purposes

The EU Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014 includes an aim to foster the mobility of collections (cultural heritage, works of art, etc.) through the simplification of processes of lending and borrowing. Among the tasks foreseen are the setting-up of a working group of Member State representatives and the commissioning of a study on systems for the valuation of works of art – the latter is presented hereby.

This study, carried out between 2011 and 2012, aims to assist the European Commission and EU Member States by providing updated knowledge on the methods for the valuation of works of art in Europe and considering measures to facilitate the mobility of collections, through a survey of museums, governments and curators. The focus of the research lies on the financial valuation of works of art and how valuation processes are undertaken in the practice of EU Member States.

The report includes a short description of how financial valuation occurs in the broader context of the valuation of cultural goods or works of art, describes the results of questionnaires and interviews with museums, governments and curators and presents recommendations at policy and management level. A sample methodology for assessing the value of different types of collections and a glossary of key terms are also included.

The study was written by Cornelia Dümcke and Freda Matassa on behalf of the EENC.

On the other hand, documents produced by the EU Working Group on the Mobility of Collections, including a report and a toolkit on practical ways to reduce the cost of lending and borrowing of cultural objects, are available on the European Commission’s website.

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Report on Export and Internationalisation Strategies for the Cultural and Creative Industries

In July 2012, the European Commission’s Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) asked the EENC to produce a commented mapping of strategies and bodies existing in EU Member States to support the export and internationalisation of goods and services in the cultural and creative industries (CCIs), as well as contextual data on trends and export volumes and a final analysis of the evidence presented.

The request arose in the context of the setting-up of a Working Group involving representatives of EU Member States, within the framework of the Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014. The report was then presented and discussed at the first two meetings of the working group, held in Brussels in December 2012 and February 2013.

The resulting document lists approximately 100 publications, policy documents and evaluation reports from the past five years, as well as around 230 bodies involved in the export and internationalisation strategies of CCIs, covering all EU Member States. It also identifies three key action areas where cooperation among European governments and agencies could be furthered, each including specific recommendations: identifying and disseminating good practice; building the knowledge and evidence base for CCI exports; and fostering joined-up policy and investment for CCI export development.

The report was carried out by EENC members Judith Staines and Colin Mercer.

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