Papers

New Business Models in the Cultural and Creative Sectors CCSs

The Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission requested the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) a paper on “New business models in the Cultural and Creative Sectors”.

The document identifies the main types of new business models in the Cultural and Creative Sectors (CCSs), which follow a genuinely innovative approach, typical for the CCSs (for example creative hubs/co-working spaces, but also other approaches using business concepts different to the ones used in traditional business; different innovative methods such as creative vouchers, crowd-funding, etc.).

The paper presents a brief typology of new business models found in the CCSs and explain in which way they are different from normal business logic.

The paper has been written by EENC member Dr. Cornelia Dümcke.

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Participatory governance of cultural heritage

The present paper has been prepared, at the request of DG EAC, by the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC).

It presents the existing different participatory practices in heritage, and also museums and analyses what it implies for cultural institutions to adopt a participatory approach in terms of its governance structure as well as its organizational culture.

The paper has been written, on behalf of the EENC, by Ms. Margherita Sani.

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Promoting access to culture via digital means

The present paper has been prepared, at the request of the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC), by the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC).

The paper presents an overview of the impact of the digital and technological developments in the cultural sector, especially in the cultural institutions. It analyses how one-way communication is no longer enough and how a deluge of new platforms, interactive elements and targeted individual messages has replaced the classical communication channels; how institutions are faced with new demands not only in terms of how they communicate but also in terms of what they communicate. Finally, it addresses the implications of this new environment in terms of audiences, cultural participation, co-creation and democracy.

The paper has been written, on behalf of the EENC, by Mr. Niels Righolt.

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Challenges and Priorities for Cultural Heritage in Europe: Results of an Expert Consultation

In August 2013, the Directorate-General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC) asked the EENC to carry out a consultation with experts in the field of cultural heritage in Europe, in order to discuss the main challenges in this area for the coming years and the aspects in which future action at EU level could provide more substantial value added. The results of the consultation should inform DG EAC’s ongoing reflections in the field of cultural heritage, including new policy activities foreseen in the near future.

Following the distribution of a questionnaire to a group of key experts in this field, the resulting paper, prepared by the EENC secretariat, summarises the main challenges identified and how EU institutions could respond to them. Both heritage themes (e.g. promoting the interdependencies between cultural heritage and other areas of sustainable development, fostering new narratives and interpretation models, etc.) and policy methods (e.g. fostering the exchange of good practices among Member States, supporting heritage networks, etc.) emerge from the consultation, which was presented to DG EAC in September 2013.

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The Social and Economic Value of Cultural Heritage: Literature Review

In early 2013, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) asked the EENC to prepare a review of recent academic literature and research reports addressing the social and economic value of cultural heritage.

The resulting document, which includes an analysis of 87 publications, should contribute to the implementation of activities in the context of the European Agenda for Culture as well as the recognition of the potential role of cultural heritage for the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy, the EU’s mid-term plan to foster smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. A final chapter summarises the main findings and presents some conclusions, as regards the areas of impact observed, the policy relevance, the methodologies used and the research and documentation needs identified.

The literature review was produced by Cornelia Dümcke and Mikhail Gnedovsky.

 

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Culture and the Structural Funds in the Czech Republic

In the framework of the design and negotiation of the EU’s Cohesion Policy and the Operational Programmes for the funding period 2014-20, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture asked the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) to prepare papers to analyse how the cultural and creative sectors could foster local and regional development in several EU Member States.

Each national analysis presents an overview of available information on how the Structural Funds have been used with regard to the cultural sector, a short SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of investment in the cultural and creative sector and an identification of priorities for investment in culture in 2014-2020.

The paper on culture and the Structural Funds in the Czech Republic was written by Eva Žáková.

 

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Also available:

Culture and the Structural Funds in Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain

Culture and the Structural Funds in Bulgaria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Romania and Slovakia.

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Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue: Reflection Paper

In the context of the EU Council of Ministers’ Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014, a working group has been tasked with discussing and exchanges policy and practices around cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue in 2012-2013. In order to assist the group’s activities, in August 2012 the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC) asked the EENC to prepare a short paper outlining key issues in these fields.

The resulting paper presents a short history of cultural diversity in Europe in recent decades, different policies in this area and raises questions about the policies and programmes that should be implemented. Finally, the paper suggests some possible approaches for turning intercultural action into policy and making policy which supports intercultural action.

The paper was prepared on behalf of the EENC by Chris Torch. It was later discussed at the first meeting of the aforementioned working group, held in Brussels in September 2012.

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Cultural Governance: Literature Review

In the context of preparations for a conference entitled “Cultural Governance in a Globalising World: Better Governance for the Cultural and Creative Sector” which was to be held in August 2012 under the Cypriot Presidency of the EU, in late 2011 the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC) asked the EENC to prepare a literature review on cultural governance.

The document resulting from this request includes references to over 50 publications addressing the notion of ‘cultural governance’, its implications in cultural policy (policy design, participation, decentralisation, privatisation, etc.), experiences in post-Socialist countries, relations with the creative sector, the governance of individual cultural institutions and a set of other related issues. The literature review places emphasis on publications from recent years and briefly analyses their relevance. An introduction also serves to contextualise and describe the issues addressed.

The literature review was prepared by Vesna Čopič and Andrej Srakar. It was submitted to DG EAC in January 2012 and updated in February.

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The Public Value of Culture: Literature Review

In the context of preparations for a conference entitled “Cultural Governance in a Globalising World: Better Governance for the Cultural and Creative Sector” which was to be held in August 2012 under the Cypriot Presidency of the EU, in late 2011 the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC) asked the EENC to prepare a literature review on the public value of culture.

The document resulting from this request includes references to over 50 publications addressing the public value of culture, the intrinsic value of culture and other related notions, including a variety of issues related to the economic, social and political impacts of cultural practice and cultural policy. The literature review places emphasis on publications from recent years and briefly analyses their relevance. An introduction also serves to contextualise and describe the issues addressed.

The literature review was prepared by John Holden and Jordi Baltà. It was submitted to DG EAC in January 2012.

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Culture and the Structural Funds in Bulgaria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania and Slovakia

In the framework of the design and negotiation of the EU’s Cohesion Policy and the Operational Programmes for the funding period 2014-20, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture asked the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) to prepare papers to analyse how the cultural and creative sectors could foster local and regional development in several EU Member States.

Each national analysis presents an overview of available information on how the Structural Funds have been used with regard to the cultural sector, a short SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of investment in the cultural and creative sector and an identification of priorities for investment in culture in 2014-2020.

Following the 4 papers published in July 2012, eight new papers are presented hereafter – as prepared by Lidia Varbanova (Bulgaria), Pascal Brunet and Laurence Barone (France), Hatto Fischer (Greece), Péter Inkei (Hungary), Gráinne Millar (Ireland), Jorge Cerveira Pinto (Portugal), Corina Şuteu (Romania) and Zora Jaurová (Slovakia).

 

Culture and the Structural Funds in Bulgaria

Culture and the Structural Funds in France (in French)

Culture and the Structural Funds in Greece

Culture and the Structural Funds in Hungary

Culture and the Structural Funds in Ireland

Culture and the Structural Funds in Portugal

Culture and the Structural Funds in Romania

Culture and the Structural Funds in Slovakia

 

 

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